It is unclear whether the populations within MPAs should be considered when assessing depletion levels and setting harvest limits (Field et al. 2006). Given state mandates to rebuild populations, there is an incentive for managers to count protected biomass in stock assessments to demonstrate increased stock health (Field et al. 2006). However, some research has shown that including protected fish when calculating catch limits based on the total vulnerable biomass may lead to unsustainable fishing mortality rates in the fished region because in reality only a portion of the stock is targeted (Hilborn et al. 2004, 2006). Conversely, in some cases, opposition to MPAs has been tempered via predictions of healthier spawning stocks and increased yields, and so there may be pressure from the fishing industry to count the fraction of population in MPAs as part of the total stock when setting catches. While the Nearshore FMP contemplated the use of MPAs in management, the recently adopted Spiny Lobster FMP is the first instance in which the Department has integrated MPAs through the use of a SPR model. The model accounts for the percentage of lobster habitat protected by MPAs that prohibit take of lobster; thus, providing a reproductive benefit that reflects the importance of MPAs to the reproductive potential of lobster (CDFW 2016b).
The effects of overfishing on the vulnerable stock biomass may negate the benefits of the MPA population because overfishing reduces the age structure of the population, impacting both the YPR and the lifetime spawning output of each individual (Greenstreet et al. 2009). Conversely, not considering protected populations when determining stock status is likely to lead to a reduction in MSY, resulting in reduced catch limits, and can extend the rebuilding period for overfished stocks. All these outcomes may have severe economic impacts on the fishery participants. Movement and larval dispersal between the closed and open populations can alter these predictions.
A primary objective of California’s MPA network was to improve the existing design and management of MPAs relative to the goals and requirements of the MLPA. The MPAs are intended to be used as potential tools to complement fisheries management to maintain and improve ocean resources (CDFW 2016a). While MPAs have several potential benefits for fisheries, they are not a panacea for fisheries management (Sainsbury and Sumaila 2003; Willis et al. 2003; Hilborn et al. 2004; Kaiser 2005). Multiple studies have shown that the ability of MPAs to benefit fisheries requires that very specific conditions be met, including: 1) the presence of specific habitat and life history characteristics; 2) the source-sink dynamics between closed and open areas; and 3) properly siting MPAs to take advantage of these conditions (Agardy et al. 2011).
Monitoring within MPAs is essential to integrating MPAs into existing fishery management frameworks. This appendix has highlighted some of the informational needs that must be met to ensure that MPAs benefit nearby fisheries. They include, but are not limited to, an understanding of the following:
Moving forward, the Department and the OPC are collaborating to develop a statewide MPA Monitoring Action Plan. This Action Plan will provide an opportunity for the Department to ensure that long-term monitoring design and data collection efforts assist in the management of California’s fisheries.
Agardy, T., G. N. di Sciara, and P. Christie. 2011. Mind the gap: Addressing the shortcomings of marine protected areas through large scale marine spatial planning(opens in new tab). Marine Policy 35(2):226-232.
Allison, G.W., J. Lubchenco, and M. H. Carr. 1998. Marine reserves are necessary but not sufficient for marine conservation(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 8(1):S79-S92.
Aswani, S., and M. Lauer. 2006. Incorporating fishermen’s local knowledge and behavior into geographical information systems (GIS) for designing marine protected areas in Oceania(opens in new tab). Human Organization 65(1):81-102.
Bartholomew, A., J. A. Bohnsack, S. Smith, J. Ault, D. Harper, and D. McClellan. 2008. Influence of marine reserve size and boundary length on the initial response of exploited reef fishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, USA(opens in new tab). Landscape Ecology 23:55-65.
Baskett, M. L., and L. A. Barnett. 2015. The Ecological and Evolutionary Consequences of Marine Reserves(opens in new tab). Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 46:49-73.
Berkeley, S.A., M. A. Hixon, R. J. Larson, and M. S. Love. 2004. Fisheries Sustainability via Protection of Age Structure and Spatial Distribution of Fish Populations(opens in new tab). Fisheries 29(8):23-32.
Beverton, R., and S. J. Holt. 1957. On the dynamics of exploited fish populations(opens in new tab). Fishery Investigations Series II Volume XIX, Ministry of Agriculture.
Blanchette, C. A., C. M. Miner, P. T. Raimondi, D. Lohse, K. E. Heady, and B. R. Broitman. 2008. Biogeographical patterns of rocky intertidal communities along the Pacific coast of North America(opens in new tab). Journal of Biogeography 35(9):1593-1607.
Bohnsack, J. A. 1998. Application of marine reserves to reef fisheries management(opens in new tab). Austral Ecology 23(3):298-304.
Bohnsack, J. A. 1999. Incorporating no-take marine reserves into precautionary management and stock assessment(opens in new tab). In Providing Scientific Advice to Implement Precautionary Approach Under the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-F/SPO-40.
Bohnsack, J. A., J. S. Ault, and B. Causey. 2004. Why have no-take marine protected areas?(opens in new tab) American Fisheries Society Symposium 42:185-193.
Botsford, L.W., F. Micheli, and A. Hastings. 2003. Principles for the design of marine reserves(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 13(1):25-31.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). 2002. Nearshore Fishery Management Plan(opens in new tab). Adopted by the CGFC in October 2002.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). 2016a. California Marine Life Protection Act Master Plan for Marine Protected Areas(opens in new tab). Adopted by the CGFC on August 24, 2016.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). 2016b. California Spiny Lobster Fishery Management Plan(opens in new tab). Adopted by the CGFC on April 13, 2016.
California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). 2016c. Marine Region Geographic Information Systems(opens in new tab). Statistics from March 2016.
California Public Resources Code. Division 27. Ocean Resources Management. Chapter 7. Marine Managed Areas Improvement Act. §36600-36900(opens in new tab).
Caselle, J. E., A. Rassweiler, S. L. Hamilton, and R. R. Warner. 2015. Recovery trajectories of kelp forest animals are rapid yet spatially variable across a network of temperate marine protected areas(opens in new tab). Scientific Reports 5:14102.
Coleman, M. A., A. Palmer-Brodie, and B. P. Kelaher. 2013. Conservation benefits of a network of marine reserves and partially protected areas(opens in new tab). Biological Conservation 167:257-264.
Di Lorenzo, M., J. Claudet, and P. Guidetti. 2016. Spillover from marine protected areas to adjacent fisheries has an ecological and a fishery component(opens in new tab). Journal for Nature Conservation 32:62-66.
Drake, M. T., J. E. Claussen, D. P. Philipp, and D. L. Pereira. 1997. A Comparison of Bluegill Reproductive Strategies and Growth among Lakes with Different Fishing Intensitiesl(opens in new tab). North American Journal of Fisheries Management 17(2):496-507.
Field, J. C., A. E. Punt, R. D. Methot, and C. J. Thomson. 2006. Does MPA mean ‘Major Problem for Assessments'? Considering the consequences of place-based management systems(opens in new tab). Fish and Fisheries 7(4):284-302.
Garcia, S. M., J. Kolding, J. Rice, M. J. Rochet, S. Zhou, T. Arimoto, J. E. Beyer, L. Borges, A. Bundy, D. Dunn, E. A. Fulton, M. Hall, M. Heino, R. Law, M. Makino, A. D. Rijnsdorp, F. Simard, and A. D. M. Smith. 2012. Reconsidering the Consequences of Selective Fisheries(opens in new tab). Science 335(6072):1045-1047.
Garrison, T. M., O. S. Hamel, and A. E. Punt. 2011. Can data collected from marine protected areas improve estimates of life-history parameters?(opens in new tab) Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 68(10):1761-1777.
Gleason, M., E. Fox, S. Ashcraft, J. Vasques, E. Whiteman, P. Serpa, E. Saarman, M. Caldwell, A. Frimodig, M. Miller-Henson, J. Kirlin, B. Ota, E. Pope, M. Weber, and K. Wiseman. 2013. Designing a network of marine protected areas in California: achievements, costs, lessons learned, and challenges ahead(opens in new tab). Ocean and Coastal Management 74:90-101.
Goñi, R., R. Hilborn, D. Diaz, S. Mallol, and S. Adlerstein. 2010. Net contribution of spillover from a marine reserve to fishery catches(opens in new tab). Marine Ecology Progress Series 400:233-243.
Greenstreet, S. P., H. M. Fraser, and G. J. Piet. 2009. Using MPAs to address regional-scale ecological objectives in the North Sea: modelling the effects of fishing effort displacement(opens in new tab). ICES Journal of Marine Science 66(1):90-100.
Grüss, A., D. M. Kaplan, S. Guénette, C. M. Roberts, and L. W. Botsford. 2011. Consequences of adult and juvenile movement for marine protected areas.(opens in new tab) Biological Conservation 144(2):692-702.
Guenther, C., D. Lopez-Carr, and H. S. Lenihan. 2015. Differences in lobster fishing effort before and after MPA establishment(opens in new tab). Applied Geography 59(C):78-87.
Guenther, C. M. 2010. A socio-ecological analysis of marine protected areas and commercial lobster fishing in the Santa Barbara Channel, California(opens in new tab).
Guénette, S., T. Lauck, and C. Clark. 1998. Marine reserves: from Beverton and Holt to the present(opens in new tab). Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 8(3):251-272.
Halpern, B. S., and R. R. Warner. 2002. Marine reserves have rapid and lasting effects(opens in new tab). Ecological Letters 5(3):361-366.
Halpern, B. S., S. D. Gaines, and R. R. Warner. 2004. Confounding effects of the export of production and the displacement of fishing effort from marine reserves(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 14(4):1248-1256.
Hannesson, R. 2002. The Economics of Marine Reserves. Natural Resource Modeling(opens in new tab) 15(3):273-290.
Hastings, A. 1999. Equivalence in Yield from Marine Reserves and Traditional Fisheries Management(opens in new tab). Science 284(5419):1537-1538.
Hastings, A., and L. W. Botsford. 2003. Comparing designs of marine reserves for fisheries and for biodiversity(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 13(sp1):65-70.
Hilborn, R., F. Micheli, and G. A. De Leo. 2006. Integrating marine protected areas with catch regulation(opens in new tab). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 63(3):642-649.
Hilborn, R., K. Stokes, J. J. Maguire, T. Smith, L. W. Botsford, M. Mangel, J. Orensanz, A. Parma, J. Rice, J. Bell, K. L. Cochrane, S. Garcia, S. J. Hall, G. P. Kirkwood, K. Sainsbury, G. Stefansson, and C. Walters. 2004. When can marine reserves improve fisheries management?(opens in new tab) Ocean Coast Manage 47(3-4):197-205.
Hixon, M. A., D. W. Johnson, and S. M. Sogard. 2014. BOFFFFs: on the importance of conserving old-growth age structure in fishery populations(opens in new tab). ICES Journal of Marine Sciences 71(8):2171-2185.
Jamieson, G. S., and C. O. Levings. 2001. Marine protected areas in Canada — implications for both conservation and fisheries management(opens in new tab). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 58(1):138-156.
Kaiser, M. J. 2005. Are marine protected areas a red herring or fisheries panacea?(opens in new tab) Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 62(5):1194-1199.
Kay, M. C., and J. R. Wilson. 2012. Spatially explicit mortality of California spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) across a marine reserve network(opens in new tab). Environmental Conservation 39(3):215-224.
Kelaher, B. P., M. A. Coleman, A. Broad, M. J. Rees, A. Jordan, and A. R. Davis. 2014. Changes in fish assemblages following the establishment of a network of no-take marine reserves and partially protected areas(opens in new tab). PLOS ONE 9(1):E85825.
Kenchington, T. J. 2014. Natural mortality estimators for information-limited fisheries(opens in new tab). Fish and Fisheries 14(4):533-562.
Klein, C. J., A. Chan, L. Kircher, A. J. Cundiff, N. Gardner, Y. Hrovat, A. Scholz, B. E. Kendall, and S. Airame. 2008. Striking a balance between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic viability in the design of marine protected areas(opens in new tab). Conservation Biology 22:691-700.
Lauck, T., C. W. Clark, M. Mangel, and G. R. Munro. 1998. Implementing the precautionary principle in fisheries management through marine reserves(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 8(1):S72-S78.
Lester, S. E., and B. S. Halpern. 2008. Biological responses in marine no-take reserves versus partially protected areas(opens in new tab). Marine Ecology Progress Series 367:49-56.
Lester, S.E., B. S. Halpern, K. Grorud-Colvert, J. Lubchenco, B. I. Ruttenberg, S. D. Gaines, S. Airamé, S., and R. R. Warner. 2009. Biological effects within no-take marine reserves: a global synthesis(opens in new tab). Marine Ecology Progress Series. 384:33e46.
Maunder, M., J. Sibert, A. Fonteneau, J. Hampton, P. Kleiber, and S. Harley. 2006. Interpreting catch per unit effort data to assess the status of individual stocks and communities(opens in new tab). ICES Journal of Marine Sciences 63(8):1373-1385.
McGilliard, C. R., A. E. Punt, R. D. Methot Jr, and R. Hilborn. 2015. Accounting for marine reserves using spatial stock assessments(opens in new tab). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 72(2):262-280.
Moffitt, E. A., L. W. Botsford, and D. M. Kaplan. 2009. Marine reserve networks for species that move within a home range(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 19(7):1835–1847.
Monaco, M., A. M. Friedlander, C. Caldow, J. D. Christensen, C. Rogers, J. Beets, J. Miller, R. Boulon. 2007. Characterizing reef fish populations and habitats within and outside the US Virgin Islands Coral Reef National Monument: lesson in marine protected area design(opens in new tab). Fisheries Management and Ecology, 14(1):33-40.
MPA Monitoring Enterprise, OST. 2010. North Central Coast MPA Monitoring Plan. Appendix A-1: Possible Supplemental Fisheries Monitoring Module (PDF)(opens in new tab).
MPA Monitoring Enterprise, OST. 2011. South Coast MPA Monitoring Plan. Appendix A-1: Supplemental Fisheries Monitoring Module (PDF)(opens in new tab).
MPA Monitoring Enterprise, OST. 2014. Central Coast MPA Monitoring Plan. Appendix A: Integrating Fisheries Monitoring and MPA Monitoring (PDF)(opens in new tab).
Murawski, S. A., S. Wigley, M. Fogarty, P. Rago, and D. Mountain. 2005. Effort distribution and catch patterns adjacent to temperate MPAs(opens in new tab). ICES Journal of Marine Sciences 62:1150-1167.
Nowlis, J. S., and C. M. Roberts. 1999. Fisheries benefits and optimal design of marine reserves(opens in new tab). Fishery Bulletin 97(3):604-116.
Ono, K., A. E. Punt, and R. Hilborn. 2015. How do marine closures affect the analysis of catch and effort data?(opens in new tab) Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 72(8):1177-1190.
Parrish, R. 1999. Marine reserves for fisheries management: why not(opens in new tab). Symposium of the CalCOFI Conference: a continuing dialogue on no-take reserves for resource management, Asilomar, CA, USA; 4 November 1998. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Report 40:77-86.
Punt, A. E., and R. D. Methot. 2004. Effects of marine protected areas on the assessment of marine fisheries(opens in new tab). American Fisheries Society Symposium 42:133-154.
Quinn, T. P., and D. J. Adams. 1996. Environmental changes affecting the migratory timing of American Shad and Sockeye Salmon(opens in new tab). Ecology 77(4):1151.
Reddy, S. M., A. Wentz, O. Aburto-Oropeza, M. Maxey, S. Nagavarapu, and H. M. Leslie 2013. Evidence of market-driven size-selective fishing and the mediating effects of biological and institutional factors(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 23(4):726-741.
Ricker, W. E. 1981. Changes in the average size and average age of Pacific salmon(opens in new tab). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 38(12):1636-1656.
Roberts, C.M., J. P. Hawkins, and F. R. Gell. 2005. The role of marine reserves in achieving sustainable fisheries(opens in new tab). Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society Biological Sciences 360(1453):123-132.
Rochet, M. J., J. S. Collie, S. Jennings, and S. J. Hall. 2011. Does selective fishing conserve community biodiversity? Predictions from a length-based multispecies model(opens in new tab). Canadian Journal of Fish and Aquatic Sciences 68:469-486.
Rosen, D., and A. Lauermann. 2016. It's all about your network: using ROVs to assess marine protected area effectiveness(opens in new tab). OCEANS 2016 MTS/IEEE Monterey.
Saarman, E., M. Gleason, J. Ugoretz, S. Airamé, M. Carr, E. Fox, A. Frimodig, T. Mason, and J. Vasques. 2013. The role of science in supporting marine protected area network planning and design in California(opens in new tab). Ocean and Coastal Management 74:45-56.
Sainsbury, K., and U. R. Sumaila. 2003. Incorporating Ecosystem Objectives into Management of Sustainable Marine Fisheries, Including “Best Practice” Reference Points and Use of Marine Protected Areas(opens in new tab). In Responsible Fisheries in the Marine Ecosystem. Edited by M. Sinclair and G. Valdimarsson. FAO, Rome. pp. 343-361.
Sanchirico, J. N., K. A. Cochran, and P. M. Emerson. 2002. Marine Protected Areas: Economic and Social Implications(opens in new tab). Resources for the Future, Discussion Paper 02-26.
Scholz, A., K. Bonzon, R. Fujita, N. Benjamin, N. Woodling, P. Black, and C. Steinback. 2004. Participatory socioeconomic analysis: drawing on fishermen’s knowledge for marine protected area planning in California(opens in new tab). Marine Policy 28(4):335-349.
Smith, M. D., and J. E. Wilen. 2003. Economic impacts of marine reserves: the importance of spatial behavior(opens in new tab). Journal of Environmental Economics and Management 46(2):183-206.
Starr, R. M., D. E. Wendt, C. L. Barnes, C. I. Marks, D. Malone, G. Waltz, K. T. Schmidt, J. Chiu, A. L. Launer, N. C. Hall, and N. Yochum. 2015. Variation in Responses of Fishes across Multiple Reserves within a Network of Marine Protected Areas in Temperate Waters(opens in new tab). PLOS ONE10(3): E0118502.
Tupper, M. 2007. Spillover of commercial valuable reef fishes from marine protected areas in Guam, Micronesia(opens in new tab). Fishery Bulletin 105(4):507-537.
Wertz, S., D. Aseltine-Neilson, T. Barnes, J. Vasques, S. Ashcraft, K. Barsky, A. Frimodig, M. Key, T. Mason, and B. Ota. 2011. Proceedings of the Marine Protected Areas and Fisheries Integration Workshop(opens in new tab).
White, J. W., A. J. Scholz, A. Rassweiler, C. Steinback, L. W. Botsford, S. Kruse, C. Costello, S. Mitarai, S., D. A. Siegel, P. T. Drake, and C. A. Edwards. 2013. A comparison of approaches used for economic analysis in marine protected area network planning in California(opens in new tab). Ocean and Coastal Management 74:77-89
White, J. W., K. J. Nickols, D. Malone, M. H. Carr, R. M. Starr, F. Cordoleani, M. L. Baskett, A. Hastings, and L. W. Botsford. 2016. Fitting state-space integral projection models to size-structured time series data to estimate unknown parameters(opens in new tab). Ecological Applications 26(8):2677-2694.
Willis, T. J., R. B. Millar, R. C. Babcock, and N. Tolimieri. 2003. Burdens of evidence and the benefits of marine reserves: putting Descartes before des horse?(opens in new tab) Environmental Conservation 30(2):97-103.
Wilson-Vandenberg, D., T. Larinto, and M. Key. 2014. Implementing California’s Nearshore Fishery Management Plan – twelve years later(opens in new tab). California Fish and Game, 100(2):186-217.
Worm, B., and H. S. Lenihan. 2014. 20. Threats to marine ecosystems: overfishing and habitat degradation(opens in new tab). In Marine Community Ecology and Conservation. Eds M.R. Bertness, B.J. Silliman, and J.J. Stachowicz. pp. 449-476.
Zeidberg, L. D., Butler, J. L., Ramon, D., Cossio, A., Stierhoff, K. L. and Henry, A. 2012. Estimation of spawning habitats of market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) from field surveys of eggs off Central and Southern California(opens in new tab). Marine Ecology, 33(3):326-336.
Zhou, S., A. D. M. Smith, A. E. Punt, A. J. Richardson, M. Gibbs, E. A. Fulton, S. Pascoe, C. Bulman, P. Bayliss, and K. Sainsbury. 2010. Ecosystem-based fisheries management requires a change to the selective fishing philosophy(opens in new tab). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107(21):9485-9489.