Science Spotlight

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  • November 4, 2020

The link opens in new windowfall 2020 issue of California Fish and Wildlife (PDF), CDFW’s quarterly scientific journal, features a series of scientific articles on the environmental impacts associated with legal and unpermitted commercial cannabis cultivation. Once primarily hidden deep in the forests of the Emerald Triangle, cannabis cultivation activities are now occurring all over California.

Like other forms of commercial agriculture, land use practices associated with cannabis agriculture can pose a serious risk to many threatened and endangered species. Elijah Portugal and Jason Hwan, CDFW scientists, explore the environmental impacts with an article titled link opens in new window“Applied Science to Inform Management Efforts for Cannabis Cultivation, Humboldt County, California” (PDF). The piece focuses on the preliminary findings of a study examining the impacts of cannabis cultivation on private lands in and near remote, forested watersheds of northwestern California. This area has supported decades of illegal cultivation and today, includes both legal and illegal cannabis grows in the same watershed.

The State Water Resources Control Board’s Cannabis Cultivation Program reviews observations from the field in a part of the state that has not been historically reported on with a piece titled link opens in new window“Two Years After Legalization: Implementing the Cannabis Cultivation Policy in Southern Coastal California” (PDF). Some of the initial findings indicate that ninety four percent of the 519 enrollees in the Cannabis General Order are discharging their industrial wastewater to publicly owned treatment plants, while the remaining enrollees haul their industrial wastewater to a permitted wastewater treatment facility. Along with this, the unit has also supported state and county enforcement efforts and inspected numerous illegal cultivation sites and observed activities that could be detrimental to water quality and numerous fish and wildlife species.

Researchers from the University of California, Berkeley and CDFW present a piece titled link opens in new window“Coexisting with Cannabis: Wildlife Response to Marijuana Cultivation in the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion" (PDF), which examines local wildlife community dynamics on and nearby active private-land cannabis farms. Using camera data collected between 2018–2019, scientists monitored numerous wildlife species within the Klamath-Siskiyou Ecoregion in southern Oregon. The results suggest that cannabis farms were generally occupied by smaller-bodied wildlife species, and had a higher proportion of domestic dogs, cats and human activity as compared to nearby comparison sites. They conclude that wildlife will likely have species-specific responses to cannabis cultivation and suggest the need for educational resources on wildlife-friendly growing practices.

Learn more about other cannabis research studies in this issue and what scientists are learning, including reviews of the potential impacts of pesticides, artificial light, noise pollution and trash.

For over 100 years, the California Fish and Wildlife scientific journal continues to publish high-quality, peer-reviewed science that contributes to the understanding and conservation of California’s wildlife. We look forward to the contributions of the next installment.

Media Contact:
Janice Mackey, CDFW Communications, (916) 207-7891

Categories: Science Spotlight
  • April 2, 2019

The latest issue of California Fish and Game, Vol. 105, Issue 1 (PDF), focuses on marine species, bringing new insights and understanding of several fish species found off the California coast.

In A very long term tag recovery of a California scorpionfish (Scorpaena guttata) (PDF), Roberts and Hanan report the remarkable recovery of a tagged scorpionfish that had been at liberty far longer than any previously recaptured scorpionfish. The recovery was made during a four-year mark-recapture study on nearshore groundfish off southern and central California. More than 32,000 fish were recaptured, with an average of 408.8 days at liberty. The study results indicate that scorpionfish demonstrate strong site fidelity, given that a majority of the fish were recaptured within 5k of their original tagging site. The scorpionfish that is the subject of the article was tagged in 2004. It had been at liberty for nearly 14 years (5,048 days). After removing the tag, the fisherman who captured the fish reported that he released it “unharmed and looking very healthy.”

Another paper reports on a method for estimating the age of roosterfish using dorsal fin spines (PDF). According to authors Chavez-Arellano et. al, the roosterfish is considered a prized species by the sport fishing community and provides a significant economic benefit to the Mexican tourism industry. However, little is known about its biology, ecology, and movement patterns. The authors embarked upon a study to assess which sections of roosterfish dorsal fin spines have the most legible indicators of growth for use in future aging studies. Their work provides the initial basis from which future aging studies can be conducted.

Finally,Primary and secondary nursery areas for leopard and brown smoothhound sharks in San Francisco Bay, California (PDF), summarizes a 31-year study to determine primary and secondary nursery habitats for leopard and brown smoothhound sharks within South San Francisco Bay, adding new knowledge to the biology of both species.

As it has for the past 105 years, California Fish and Game continues to publish high-quality, peer-reviewed science that contributes to the understanding and conservation of California’s wildlife. We look forward to witnessing the contributions of the next installment.

CDFW Photo.
Media Contact:
Lorna Bernard, CDFW Communications, (916) 322-8911  

Categories: California Fish and Game Journal
  • February 15, 2019

Scientific Journal cover with photo of bird sitting in wooden pole

The latest two issues of California Fish and Game, CDFW’s long-running scientific journal, are now available online.

Issue 104(3) features a rather dignified-looking desert spiny lizard (Sceloporus magister) on the cover. It is one of 15 species captured and documented by Cummings et. al in Biodiversity of amphibians and reptiles at the Camp Cady Wildlife Area, Mojave Desert, California and comparison with other desert locations. The paper’s eight authors spent months in the Mojave desert location, trapping and identifying its inhabitants. The finding were combined with a review of scientific literature to document the biological diversity of the area in comparison to other desert habitats.

Also in Issue 104(3):

  • Annual and seasonal variation, relative abundance, and effects of managed flows on timing of migration in Brown Trout (Salmo trutta) in the upper Trinity River, by Sullivan and Hilemen, challenges a previous study suggesting that brown trout populations are increasing in the upper Trinity River and are having a negative impact on native juvenile anadromous salmonids. The authors assert that previous trapping data suggest a behavioral response to managed flow regimes rather than an increasing population. Further, they provide management recommendations to determine whether the removal of brown trout—an important economic sport fishery resource—is necessary and has the potential to be successful.
  • Geographic range and biology of Spinyeye Rockfish (Sebastes spinorbis Chen, 1975), an endemic species to the Gulf of California, Mexico, by Acevedo-Cervantes et. al. The authors add to the existing knowledge of a marine species that is currently not a fishing target and about which little is known.

Issue 104(4)’s cover photo illustrates the article Ground-nesting great horned owl in Suisun Marsh, California. Skalos et. al provide vivid descriptions and photographs of great horned owl nest sites, ranging from non-native eucalyptus trees to man-made structures (such as the dock piling shown in the cover photo) and even ground nests. Though great horned owl nest sites are known to be diverse, little documentation exists to support some of these observations. In fact, Skalos et. al’s ground nest observation is the first documented case in California.

Also in Issue 104(4):

  • Prey of neonate leopards Sharks in San Francisco Bay, California by R. Russo. The leopard shark has been the focus of several studies documenting the diet of juvenile through adult stage animals. The author examined the stomach contents of neonate leopard sharks and found that small, easily accessible prey items such as bay shrimps and polychaete worms are important for rapid growth of leopard sharks during the first year of life.
  • Within-Talus temperatures are not limiting for pikas in the Northern Sierra Nevada, by Wright and Stewart. Pikas are small herbivores related to rabbits that live in fields of broken rock (talus) in the mountains of western North America. Researchers examined potentially suitable talus habitats at various elevations in the northern Sierra Nevada. Their findings suggest that the cooler temperatures provided by talus is not sufficient to sustain pikas. The aboveground air and surface temperatures, rather than temperatures within talus, pose a greater challenge to pika survival.

California Fish and Game provides important contributions to the existing body of scientific knowledge. First published in 1914, California Fish and Game is the longest continuously published scientific journal. For more information and other back issues, please visit CDFW’s website.

CDFW Photos.

Media Contact:
Lorna Bernard, CDFW Communications, (916) 322-8911

Categories: California Fish and Game Journal
  • July 31, 2018

The latest issue of the scientific journal California Fish and Game is now available online (for free!). Volume 104, Number 1 features a gorgeous photo of a black-tailed jackrabbit in sunlit profile taken by renowned photographer David Jesse McChesney. The back cover image, also by McChesney, features two cottontails at play. We are fortunate to be allowed the use of these amazing images to promote the content of the latest issue. Individual papers in this issue include:

  • link opens in new windowReproductive aspects of Sphyraena ensis (Perciformes: Sphyraenidae) inhabiting the coast of San Blas Nayarit, southeast Gulf of California (PDF). The Mexican barracuda is the subject of a study that gathers baseline data for this important fishery resource. Although the species constitutes one of the main economic pursuits along the coast of Nayari, Mexico, little is known about its reproductive biology. A one-year study of specimens caught via commercial fishing revealed that females outnumber males (1:1.87 male:female). They also grow larger—a reproductive strategy that allows them to produce more eggs. By comparing the size of the liver and reproductive organs of the specimens, relative to their overall size, researchers were able to determine that both sexes are at their reproductive peak from April to June. The study results suggest that a fishery closure during this peak reproductive time can provide long-term population benefits for the species.
  • link opens in new windowComparison of rabbit abundance survey techniques in arid habitats (PDF). An important component of any species management plan is population data, which is why it is important to know which survey methods are most effective and cost-efficient. Cypher et. al assesses four methods for counting rabbits and hares in arid climates: 1) visual encounter surveys (walking slowly and counting every animal observed); 2) spotlight surveys (driving slowly at night while shining spotlights out each side of the vehicle); 3) aerial surveys (using a low-flying helicopter to flush and count animals along transect routes); and 4) track stations (putting bait in clearings that have been raked smooth, then counting tracks). The results provide interesting observations to consider based upon the individual researcher’s budget, the habitat being studied, and staff time and availability.
  • link opens in new windowField method for estimating the weight of tule elk from chest circumference (PDF). Studying larger animals provides an entirely different set of challenges. CDFW biologists frequently capture tule elk for the purpose of relocating them, gathering data and/or providing veterinary care. Administering a proper dose of sedatives and reversal agents is critical for the safety of the animal as well as its human handlers. Since the dosage is based upon weight, the challenge is figuring out how to accurately estimate the weight of an animal that is the size of a full-grown cow. Langner and Casady address this issue by determining a field method for estimating the weight of tule elk. The researchers captured and weighed more than 50 elk over a four-year period, measuring the chest circumference of each animal. The data were analyzed and resulted in a conversion chart that aids researchers in more accurately estimating weights of tule elk in the field.

The latest issue also contains a review of Butch Weckerly’s book, Population ecology of Roosevelt elk: conservation and management in Redwood National and State Parks and a reprint of a scientific paper originally published in 1947 entitled, “Ecology of a cottontail rabbit (Sylvilagus audubonii) population in Central California."

California Fish and Game is CDFW’s official scientific journal devoted to the conservation and understanding of the state’s plants and animals. This issue (either in hi-res or low-res) can be found in its entirety online.

CDFW Photos.

Categories: California Fish and Game Journal
  • January 30, 2018

The latest issue of California Fish and Game, 103-3, makes a significant contribution to the body of research related to longfin smelt in California. A paper titled, “link opens in new windowHistoric and contemporary distribution of Longfin Smelt (Spirinchus thaleichthys) along the California coast (PDF)” analyzes and presents observation data for this species from a variety of published and unpublished sources dating from 1889 to 2016. This anadromous fish, which is listed as threatened under the California Endangered Species Act, has been documented in a diverse range of habitats, including coastal lagoons, bays, estuaries, sloughs, tidal freshwater streams and nearshore habitats. In addition to providing a comprehensive look at the existing information available for longfin smelt along the California coast, this paper identifies additional information needed to improve management and enhance recovery of the species within the state.

In “link opens in new windowDistribution and derivation of dabbling duck harvests in the Pacific Flyway (PDF),” the authors look at abundance, banding and harvest data from throughout the Pacific Flyway and other important source areas in the Central Flyway to estimate the distribution and derivation of Pacific Flyway dabbling duck harvests during 1966−2013. The Pacific Flyway has long been considered an important wintering area for dabbling ducks. Better knowledge of the origins of these birds could assist in both harvest and habitat management.

The authors of “link opens in new windowDistribution of Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) in Death Valley National Park, CA (PDF)” endured harsh environmental conditions to document the occurrence of Amargosa River pupfish along the lower Amargosa River drainage where the species has not been previously documented. The downstream-most location of Amargosa pupfish captured in this study extends the previously recorded geographic range approximately 49 river km. The findings not only determine the distribution of Amargosa River pupfish within Death Valley National Park, but will help identify suitable locations at which to establish long-term monitoring sites.

California Fish and Game has published high-quality, peer-reviewed science for the past 103 years, making important contributions to the understanding and conservation of California’s wildlife.

Cover photo courtesy of Gerald and Buff Corsi © California Academy of Sciences.

Categories: California Fish and Game Journal