Science Spotlight

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  • April 12, 2019

Laminated sign with fish that reads attention anglers attached to old wooden sign on metal post in grassy area with lake and mountains in background
Lake-side signage lets anglers know Kirman has recently been stocked with wild brook trout and asks for help from anglers in competing a brief survey about their fishing experience.

Seven people in waders and machine backpacks holding nets and yellow poles in stream.
CDFW fisheries biologists electrofish Silver Creek in Mono County to remove non-native brook trout to reduce competition with native cutthroats.

Hand palm facing up with several water bugs in palm
The tremendous amount of aquatic life within Kirman Lake provides a nearly unlimited food supply for transplanted brook trout from Silver Creek and transplanted Lahontan cutthroat trout from Heenan Lake. Kirman itself has no spawning habitat and is dependent on trout plants from CDFW to maintain the trophy trout fishery.

Small speckled fish laid on top of measuring tape and wooden board.
Before release into their new home in Kirman Lake this fall, brook trout were measured and their adipose fins clipped. CDFW scientists plan to track their growth rates with the help of voluntary angler surveys.

It’s a question that has been asked by more than a few eastern Sierra trout anglers: What happened to the fishing at Kirman Lake?

Kirman, a small backcountry lake north of Bridgeport in Mono County, has long been heralded as one of the very few places in the state where anglers could catch trophy brook trout.

While many high-elevation waters hold overpopulations of stunted brook trout measured in inches, the brook trout in Kirman were measured in pounds. Fish in the 2- to 4-pound class were common with numerous reports of brookies exceeding 5 pounds.

The lake requires a moderate, 3-mile hike to reach – just enough distance and difficulty to discourage casual anglers and help minimize some of the fishing pressure, particularly with so many great trout fishing options nearby. The lake is a special-regulations water with limited harvest. It is open to fishing during the state’s traditional trout season from the last Saturday in April to Nov. 15. Only artificial lures with barbless hooks may be used. Only two trout can be kept – with a minimum size limit of 16 inches.

Kirman was a destination known well beyond the confines of Mono County.

Fly fishing author and instructor Denny Rickards included Kirman in his book “Fly Fishing the West’s Best Trophy Lakes.”

Rickards writes, “Those who have made the trek and landed one of these beautiful trout know what a delicate lake it is. Part of the promise here is more than just big brook trout – the lake also harbors big cutthroat. However, the cuts aren’t the primary focus of those who fish here. It’s those big, beautiful brookies that bring fishermen up the trail.”

Author Bill Sunderland likewise highlighted Kirman in his book “Fly Fishing California Stillwaters.” He writes, “The fish here, both brook trout and Lahontan cutthroats from Heenan Lake, grow exceptionally fast. A four-year-old brookie can be twenty inches long and weigh four pounds. Many of them are football-shaped, the result of their rapid growth.”

In recent years, however, the brook trout seemingly disappeared with anglers reporting fewer catches with no brookies in the mix. Fishing reports from Kirman dried up as well at local tackle shops with fewer anglers apparently making the trek.

What happened to Kirman Lake and its trophy brook trout is no mystery to CDFW fisheries biologists, who are committed to restoring the lake to its former glory.

“There’s no spawning habitat,” explained Jeff Weaver, a senior environmental scientist with CDFW who oversees the department’s Heritage and Wild Trout Program. “All the fish in Kirman Lake have been stocked to provide the recreational fishery.”

Brook trout were planted annually by CDFW until 2015 when hatchery problems prevented the raising and delivering of the fish.

What Kirman lacks in spawning habitat it makes up for in food abundance. Unlike many high-mountain lakes where trout eke out an existence in near-sterile conditions, Kirman is the equivalent of a 24-hour, all-you-can-eat buffet. The lake is loaded with all manner of aquatic invertebrates -- water boatman, dragonflies, mayflies and midges – along with high-protein leeches and shrimp-like scuds. The heavy population of scuds accounts for the tremendous growth rate and size of Kirman brook trout.

When Russell Black, CDFW’s new fisheries supervisor for the Inland Deserts Region, learned about the lack of hatchery plants and the poor state of the once-great fishery, he came up with a simple yet creative solution.

This past fall, work was underway at nearby Silver Creek to prepare the water for the eventual restoration of native Lahontan cutthroat trout. CDFW biologists electrofished Silver Creek to remove the non-native brook trout there to minimize competition with the native cutthroats.

Black’s idea: Take those brook trout and transport them to Kirman.

More than 1,300 Silver Creek brook trout in a variety of sizes were relocated to Kirman. Prior to release, the fish were measured and their adipose fins clipped. CDFW biologists encourage anglers at Kirman this upcoming trout season to record their catch and fishing experiences at angler survey boxes lakeside so they can track the transplanted Silver Creek brook trout.

Given the exceptional growth rate at Kirman, CDFW biologists expect anglers to get into some quality fish by the fall.

Even as CDFW shifts its statewide trout hatchery focus to raising and stocking native trout as opposed to non-native brown trout, brook trout or even domesticated strains of hatchery rainbow trout, biologists see a future for trophy brook trout in Kirman and are exploring options to resume annual hatchery stocking.

“Kirman Lake is one of those celebrated fisheries where we weigh management in favor of continuing that recreational fishery,” said CDFW’s Weaver, who himself has fished Kirman a dozen or so times over the past 20 years. “Kirman Lake is managed as a trophy trout fishery and we intend to continue to manage it as a trophy trout fishery. We’ve just been on pause as a result of the lack of stocking.”

The pause may be over, though, as CDFW intends to maintain the supplemental stocking from Silver Creek until regular hatchery plants can resume.

CDFW Photos. Top Photo: This small brook trout was one of many relocated this fall from Silver Creek to Kirman Lake, where it could potentially grow into a trophy-sized fish awaiting anglers this trout season.

Media contact: Peter Tira, Communications, (916) 322-8908

Categories: Wildlife Research
  • July 6, 2017

Two men on a pier, one with a clipboard and the other with a fishing pole
A young woman measures a fish on a pier.
A young woman weighs a fish on a charter boat
Two men and a child fishing on a sandy beach
A young woman wearing a California Fish and Wildlife cap measures a fish on a dock

If you’re an avid marine sport angler, you have most likely seen the smiling faces and brown polo shirts of California Recreational Fisheries Survey (CRFS) samplers. Since its inception in 2004, CRFS has grown into one of the state’s largest and most important survey efforts. Survey samplers are tasked with collecting data about both recreational fishing catch and effort.

Annually, CRFS samplers make direct contact with 68,000 fishing parties at over 400 sampling sites between the California-Oregon state line to the California-Mexico border. A separate but related telephone survey effort contacts an additional 26,000 anglers. A program of this large scale is necessary because recreational fishing effort and success rates are highly dynamic – a large sample size is needed to adequately estimate catch and effort. Recreational fishing effort is also very challenging to predict, as it can be affected by many factors (weather, gas prices, time of year, fishing seasons, etc.). But the recreational sector accounts for a significant portion of overall marine harvest, so it’s essential to collect that data to produce reliable estimates of harvest.

CRFS is part of a larger effort to estimate recreational catch and effort on the west coast and is integral to the national effort conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service’s Marine Recreational Information Program. This partnership allows CRFS methods to be periodically peer reviewed by expert consultants throughout the country. This review provides certification that the methods meet or exceed national standards and fisheries management needs, and can recommend the use of new methods to address changing needs or to capture emerging fisheries.

There are three parts to the survey. The first is the field sampling component. This consists of in-person interviews conducted for four different fishing modes – beaches and banks, man-made structures, private/rental boats, and commercial passenger fishing vessels. Field survey questions are specific to catch and effort data during daylight hours at publicly accessible sites. The second part of the survey is the telephone survey. Anglers are randomly selected monthly through the state’s online Automated License Data System (ALDS) and asked about effort data (the number of fishing trips taken) at beach and bank sites. The telephone survey also collects data from private boats returning to sites not sampled during the field survey, and private boats returning at night. The third part of the survey is collection of data from commercial passenger fishing vessel logs. Captains submit this information for every trip, and the data is used together with field sampling data to estimate overall fishing effort.

All of this information is used in many ways. In addition to CDFW, the Fish and Game Commission and the Pacific Fishery Management Council use the data to:

  • Track in-season catches against annual harvest limits, especially for certain over-fished groundfish species, such as Yelloweye and Cowcod rockfish.
  • Produce in-season salmon estimates in coordination with the CDFW Ocean Salmon Project.
  • Aid the development of regulations, including fishing season, bag limits, minimum size limits and depth limits.
  • Assess stocking needs for individual fish species.

How can you help? There are two ways! If you encounter a CRFS sampler in the field, please cooperate and answer the interview questions truthfully. Take the time to allow the sampler to examine and measure any catch. Recreational anglers, particularly those who fish frequently, are more likely to encounter CRFS samplers. Every fishing trip is unique — different target species, success rates, different locations, different gear, etc. — so we ask anglers, “Even if you have completed this survey before, please cooperate each time you are asked!”

Secondly, if you receive a phone call, please say “yes” to the CRFS telephone surveyor. Data collected through this telephone survey is used to estimate fishing effort that cannot be estimated any other way.

Personal contact information is always kept confidential, and the information that is collected becomes part of a public database. To learn more about the CRFS, access the database or download related flyers and brochures, please visit www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Marine/CRFS.

Categories: General