Science Spotlight

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  • October 5, 2020

The burned paw pad of a bear found in the wake of the Bear (North Complex).

veterinary team working on a burned bear in the lab
Wildlife veterinarians document the bear’s injuries prior to treatment.

veterinarian applying talapia skin on the bottom of burned bear paw
Burn treatment protocol includes the use of sterilized fish skins as a natural bandage for damaged tissue.

veterinarian team working on a mountain lion burned in fires in the lab
Wildlife veterinarians assess a mountain lion that was burned in the Bobcat Fire.

burned paw of a mountain lion
The burned paw pad of a mountain lion found in the wake of the Bobcat Fire.

In early December 2017, wildlife veterinarians from the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine and CDFW teamed up to try to save the life of a black bear that sustained third-degree burns in Southern California’s Thomas Fire. The innovative treatment involved the use of tilapia skins as natural bandages for the bear’s paw pads while she recovered from her injuries at CDFW’s Wildlife Investigations Laboratory (WIL) in Rancho Cordova.

Before the month was out, two more victims of the Thomas Fire joined her – a second burned bear, and a young mountain lion. The fish skin treatments were successful and all three patients survived – the bears were released back to the wild, and the orphaned lion cub, which was deemed too young to survive on its own, was placed in a sanctuary. In August 2018, the Carr Fire near Redding sent a fourth burned ursine patient to the lab, which was again treated and successfully released.

The veterinary science was groundbreaking, and the opportunity so very exciting for the team involved, especially the project’s leads, UC Davis’s Dr. Jamie Peyton and CDFW’s Dr. Deana Clifford.

Unfortunately, these four cases were just the beginning, with additional wild animals being burned in the Carr and Camp fires. The 2020 fire season in California has been even more severe, with more than 7,700 individual fires consuming 3.7 million acres of wildlife habitat so far. On Sept. 11, the WIL received its first burn patient of 2020, a 370-lb. male black bear from the aptly named Bear Fire (which later became the North Complex Fire) in Butte County. On Sept. 21, the second patient, a female mountain lion from the Bobcat Fire in Los Angeles County, arrived. On Sept. 30, a 520-lb. male bear was brought in from the Zogg Fire in Shasta County.

“Both bears and the lion are receiving our burn protocol, including the fish skin bandages, and we are optimistic that their burns will heal so that they can be released,” Dr. Clifford said. “But it’s likely that we will receive more wildlife with burns … we are only halfway through the regular fire season.”

As California’s wildfires grow in intensity, size and frequency, our state’s wildlife veterinarians are being forced to reexamine the big picture -- how wildlife are faring, to what extent we should intervene and what our capacity is to do so.

“While we know what a devastating effect wildfires have on our human population – and, to a lesser degree, domestic animals – our knowledge about how wildfires affect wildlife (non-domestic animals) during and immediately after the disaster has been so limited,” Dr. Peyton said. “There’s always been this prevailing mindset that ‘they’ll get out of the way,’ or that they can manage if left alone, but that needs to change. With the increase in frequency and severity of disasters, wildlife cannot escape. Without human interference, these animals will suffer and succumb, due not only to their injuries but also to the loss of food, water and habitat. It is our obligation to provide the missing link for the wildlife that share our home.”

A successful response to this developing need will require resources – time, money, and professional expertise. In an effort to build these resources quickly and efficiently, CDFW and the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine have drawn up a proposal for a wildlife search and rescue, field triage, transport and long term rehabilitation care system for injured wildlife resulting from wildfires.

The Wildlife Disaster Network, as it’s been dubbed, is modeled after the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) – a similar structure created in 1994 to mobilize volunteers and professionals to help save shorebirds and other wildlife that are injured during coastal and inland oil spills.

The new Wildlife Disaster Network will include veterinarians, wildlife biologists, ecologists, trained animal care volunteers and rehabilitation centers that follow the four core principles already set by the OWCN: readiness, response, research and reaching out. There will also be field reconnaissance in the aftermath of fires, conducted by UC Davis-affiliated staff, with the approval and oversight of Incident Command, when conditions are deemed safe to do so. In addition, they have established a hotline for first responders, utility workers, and the general public to call in for assistance with coordinating care for injured wildlife: 1 (800) 942-6459 (1-800 WHC-OIL-9).

“The idea is to create a collaborative process – which works within any existing emergency incident command structure – that brings experts together to respond to injured animals and prevent suffering,” Dr. Clifford said.

In addition to easing the suffering of animals that are trapped by wildfires in California’s changing climate, the vets hope that the Wildlife Disaster Network will allow for California’s wildlife veterinarians and disaster response professionals to add to their knowledge, and promote further collaboration with others to share this knowledge. The long-term impacts on wildlife from these massive disasters are also largely unknown and in critical need of further investigation and intervention, especially in areas with threatened species. All of the data collected by the participants of the Wildlife Disaster Network – such as necropsy reports on the animals who do not survive their injuries – will help build a framework of scientific knowledge that didn’t previously exist.

Initially, equipment used in this effort will be loaned on an as-needed basis by the OWCN and CDFW. Ongoing financial support for this effort will be through fundraising from private donors via a gift fund to be established by UC Davis.

“These animals in need of care are a visible, tangible and poignant reminder that climate-changed induced wildfires are impacting our wildlife and ecosystems,” said Dr. Clifford. “They remind us that each of us should continue efforts to reduce the impacts of climate change.”

Donations to the Wildlife Disaster Network can be given online at the link opens in new windowCalifornia Wildlife Conservation General Support website or by calling the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, Office of Advancement, at (530) 752-7024.

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Media Contact:
Kirsten Macintyre, CDFW Communications, (916) 804-1714

CDFW photos

Categories: Science Spotlight
  • September 22, 2020

Paddleboarder enjoys Upper Newport Bay

groups on people on two kayaks on the ocean in Newport Bay with mountains and blue sky
Boaters in Upper Newport Bay

ocean fish in the Newport Bay
Fish at Back Bay Science Center

blue ocean water in the Newport Bay with mountains and blue sky
Upper Newport Bay, looking upstream

When you learn there’s a popular piece of property on the Southern California coast taking up more than 750 acres, you wouldn’t be faulted for imagining a marina, a golf course, a resort – or all three.

But one piece of land and (mostly) water is important and popular for what hasn’t been built there. The Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve showcases the beautiful California coast, unspoiled and filled with wildlife, plants and fabulous scenery.

The reserve is one of 749 properties carefully managed by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW). Located in the heart of Newport Beach, in Orange County, the reserve is completely surrounded by some of the most highly valued real estate in the country. The University of California, Irvine, isn’t far away – neither is John Wayne Airport. But that’s all forgotten when exploring the reserve on foot, by boat or paddleboard, or with binoculars.

“People don’t realize how few areas exist like this anymore in Southern California, or that we have marshes in California. It’s not what people think of about the California coast; they think of beaches,” said Reserve Manager Dr. Amanda Swanson. “People can live one city over and not know this even exists.”

The reserve was created in 1975, at a time when developers most certainly would have jumped at the chance to turn this area into a profitable commercial property of some sort. Instead, it offers peaceful and scenic experiences for people looking to hike, fish, watch birds or view tidepools. Of equal importance, the reserve plays a large role in protecting wildlife and vegetation that isn’t as plentiful today as it once was.

“The reason this is so heavily protected – and why it’s a reserve now – is because we have a lot of really sensitive wildlife and vegetation here,” Swanson said. “We’ve lost 85 to 90 percent of our coastal wetlands in Southern California, and it’s one of the few large ones we have left. For that reason, unfortunately, we have multiple endangered species.”

Specific endangered plants on the reserve include salt marsh bird’s beak, while several bird species – Ridgway’s rail, Belding’s savannah sparrow, Least bell’s vireo, coastal California gnatcatcher and cactus wren – are either endangered or threatened.

The reserve offers an outstanding educational opportunity as well, with the presence of the Back Bay Science Center. CDFW partners with the city of Newport Beach, Orange County, the Newport Bay Conservancy and UC Irvine in operating the Science Center, which serves as a teaching and research facility at the reserve. Thousands of students, middle school age through college, visit the Center each year to learn about watershed and ecological concepts, habitat restoration and marine life. There’s no shortage of available lessons for anyone who visits the science center or reserve. (Due to COVID-19, the reserve is temporarily closed. Information on at-home programs and resources at the Science Center is available at link opens in new windowbackbaysciencecenter.org.)

“Coastal wetlands like Upper Newport Bay can provide several ecosystem services such as coastal protection from storms and flood protection. Then there’s filtration – we unfortunately have trash come down the watershed, so the wetlands can prevent some of that trash from making its way into the ocean, which gives us the opportunity to remove it,” Swanson said. “Wetlands also effectively cycle nutrients through processes that purify the water and store carbon in the soil.”

Changes in the carbon cycle are of particular concern as increased atmospheric CO2 is a contributor to climate change, added Swanson. The plants in coastal wetlands contribute to the carbon cycle because they consume and transform atmospheric CO2 through photosynthesis. When these plants die, they then transfer the carbon to the soil where it can be stored for long periods of time.

CDFW Senior Environmental Scientist Robin Madrid emphasized the important restoration work being done at the reserve for an aquatic plant called eelgrass. That work is being done by CDFW staff along with Orange County Coast Keeper, volunteers and California State University, Fullerton.

“Eelgrass provides a number of important ecosystem functions, including foraging areas and shelter to young fish and invertebrates, food for migratory waterfowl and sea turtles, and stabilizing sediment,” said Madrid.

Other restoration projects are also in progress to establish more suitable habitat for wildlife and to provide Upper Newport Bay with some resiliency to sea level rise. Completing the Big Canyon Restoration and Adaptation Project has been a goal of the City of Newport Beach and CDFW for several years. The second phase of the project is beginning this fall and will remove several acres of invasive Brazilian peppertrees, restore the hydrology and establish a mosaic of native wetland and transitional upland habitats. The design for the final phase of the project will also begin this fall. The project’s ongoing success can be attributed to the strong collaborative efforts between the landowners, local stakeholders and nonprofits.

With so much scientific work going on at the Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve, Swanson and her staff are careful not to lose track of the impacts on young visitors who might be seeing the marshes, mudflats and marine habitats for the very first time.

“It’s been surprising and impressive to me, that there’s such a great interest in bringing kids, especially those from disadvantaged communities, here to learn. Many of them aren’t often able to get out to the beach, so this is a fun and unique opportunity. They see the wildlife and their lives can be changed,” said Swanson.

Swanson recalls presenting to a group of fifth graders participating in the Newport Bay Conservancy’s Fostering Interest in Nature program. “I was so impressed with the kids I met and their enthusiasm for learning about the plants and animals on the reserve. Seeing their excitement and appreciation for nature has been one of my most rewarding experiences.”

link opens in new windowVIDEO: Upper Newport Bay Ecological Reserve and Back Bay

Media Contact:

Tim Daly, CDFW Communications (916) 201-2958

CDFW photos

Categories: Science Spotlight
  • September 18, 2020

The summer 2020 issue of the link opens in new windowCalifornia Fish and Wildlife Journal (PDF) is now online! This issue contains a number of excellent articles, including a couple on taxonomic groups that are often under-represented in the Journal — invertebrates and raptors.

Raptors can provide a benefit to agriculture by reducing rodent populations, yet many croplands and pastures do not provide adequate perching structures needed by raptors to hunt effectively. In link opens in new windowA novel method using camera traps to record effectiveness of artificial perches for raptors (PDF), Clucas et. al report on a new method that allows for 24-hour monitoring of artificial perch utilization. The resulting high-resolution photos capture a variety of raptors landing, perching, and consuming prey. The authors report that their method can be easily used to study the effectiveness of hunting perches for raptors in agricultural areas.

In link opens in new windowNotes on reproduction of Cascades frogs from California (PDF), Dr. Stephen Goldberg tackles the challenge of studying a nearly extinct species without collecting or euthanizing individuals. Using museum samples of 36 R. cascadae collected from 1954 to 1972 in Plumas County, Goldberg is able to gather and analyze tissue samples that document the timing of events in the frogs’ reproductive cycle. This data will prove useful in subsequent attempts to reestablish the species in its former range.

Longcore et. al examines the habitats of another species in decline. link opens in new windowNearly all California monarch overwintering groves require non-native trees (PDF) provides a thoughtful analysis of a conservationist’s paradox: the critical need to preserve exotic trees—namely eucalyptus—to protect the preferred overwintering habitat of this iconic butterfly species.

Dr. David Boughton provides a literature review of the striped bass in coastal California—a non-native species introduced in California in the late 1800s for sport fishing. link opens in new windowStriped Bass on the coast of California: a review (PDF) addresses three key questions: Where do Striped Bass occur on the California coast? (2) Do they comprise locally reproducing populations, strays from the Golden Gate, or both? and (3) What is the general scale or scope of their potential impact on coastal salmonid populations?

Finally, Dr. Vernon C. Bleich (a past editor of the Journal) describes the presence of a species in an area that has not been previously reported in the scientific literature. link opens in new windowLocality records for Woodhouse’s toad: have wet washes in a dry desert led to extralimital occurrences of an adaptable anuran? (PDF) details the presence of Woodhouse’s toad in the Santa Rosa Mountains on the western edge of the Coachella Valley, and discusses the probable role of extreme weather events in expanding the geographic range of A. woodhousii in southeastern California.

As it has for the past 105 years, our scientific journal – previously known as California Fish and Game – continues to publish high-quality, peer-reviewed science that contributes to the understanding and conservation of California’s wildlife. For more information and other back issues, please visit CDFW’s website.

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CDFW Photo

Categories: Science Spotlight
  • August 28, 2020

VegCAMP staff researching at Carrizo Plain, San Luis Obispo County

Three scientist standing on dry grass with mountains and blue sky
VegCAMP staff working at Modoc Plateau, Modoc County

Smoke from a smoldering fire in a dry field with mountains and clouds in the sky
Lightning-caused fire witnessed by staff, Mono County

map of Slinkard Valley Wildlife Area fire scale vegetation
Slinkard Valley Wildlife Area vegetation map

California is home to more than 6,500 plant species, which offer sustenance and shelter to more than 1,000 animal species (this figure doesn’t include invertebrates).

In fact, part of the mission of the California Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW) is to manage the habitats upon which our fish and wildlife species depend. The cornerstone of those management efforts is knowledge of the plant assemblages that are unique to each habitat – where these natural communities are located, how prevalent (or rare) they are, and monitoring how their distribution may shrink or grow over time.

CDFW has three vegetation ecologists (Rachelle Boul, Betsy Bultema and Jaime Ratchford), a geographic information systems (GIS) specialist (Rosie Yacoub) and a unit supervisor (Diana Hickson) dedicated to exactly that task. Known as the Vegetation Classification and Mapping Program (VegCAMP), this team works year-round to identify, record and map all of the natural communities (also known as vegetation types) that grow in California’s 163,000 square miles. VegCAMP also relies on the mapping expertise of four contracted employees, paid through an arrangement with California State University, Chico.

According to Hickson, having a complete, reliable map of California’s vegetation is an invaluable scientific tool. “We need knowledge of where the vegetation is in order to make good management decisions, such as determining the best place to put a preserve, for example,” she says.

VegCAMP tackles this task by sampling, classifying, defining, naming and mapping the natural communities of an area – such as the Suisun Marsh, Point Reyes, Western Riverside County or the Mojave Desert. Some mapping areas encompass an entire eco-region (the Mojave Desert mapping area, for example) while some are as small as a 2,000-acre ecological reserve.
The process of classifying and mapping a CDFW property, for example, generally requires eight to 10 people to survey the property, taking detailed notes and pictures to describe the vegetation at different locations. The “boots on the ground” effort doesn’t have to cover every square inch, fortunately. The process requires collecting vegetation samples from a small portion of the mapping area (depending on the complexity), then extrapolating to determine the most likely makeup of the entire area. The data is then brought back to the office to be classified, and each location visited can be given a vegetation name. These locations on the ground are compared to aerial imagery and lines are drawn around each community type and labeled. Another measure of checks and balances is to have a second field crew survey known locations of each community, without having knowledge of the previously mapped attributes.

All of this information is entered into the VegCAMP database, where classification software and GIS tools allow users to gain a tremendous understanding of what comprises a particular area. “One map contains many different attributes,” Hickson explains. “For example, we can query the polygons (each mapped ‘patch’) to show acreage of conifer types, and then we can narrow the search to those conifer types that are tall or short, those that are regenerating or those that have a shrub layer under them. That’s the power of GIS layers.”

The data collected and recorded by the VegCAMP team has far-reaching implications, and is used by other agencies, nonprofits and partners as well.

Seeing the practical application of their work is a satisfying payoff for Hickson and her crew. For example, the VegCAMP team spent several years meticulously mapping Mendocino County’s Pygmy Forest, which is dominated by a few conifer species that grow to a height of six feet or less, due to nutrient-poor soil that saturates in the winter and dries completely over the summer. Over time, the team produced a comprehensive map that showed how much vegetation had been lost to residential development and cannabis grows, as well has how much remained. 

“As a result of our mapping, the county recognized the need to require more environmental assessment for proposals for development in that habitat,” Hickson explained. “It’s raised awareness of the vulnerability of that vegetation type.”

Vegetation ecologist Rachelle Boul also finds satisfaction in her work with VegCAMP. Her mapping efforts have largely been focused in the Suisun Marsh area in Solano County. This highly managed area is home to rare species such as the salt marsh harvest mouse, and CDFW works with the California Department of Water Resources and private duck clubs to maintain habitat for them while also allowing access for duck hunting. Here, VegCAMP remapped the vegetation every three years in order to determine if there had been any negative impact.

Boul noted the importance of aerial images, including those taken by satellite – VegCAMP has access to the photos taken by the US Department of Agriculture’s National Agriculture Imagery Program – and drones. “You can only make a vegetation map as good as the imagery that you interpret from. It’s just made it so much easier to be more accurate and more fine scale,” she said.
Boul says that it’s the diversity of her duties – from field work to data analysis to mapping vegetation and finally sharing that data with CDFW partners – that keeps her motivated and passionate about her job.

Being able to spend time in nature is certainly a perk for the VegCAMP ecologists but that’s not to say there aren’t job-related hazards. Both Hickson and Boul remember a particularly harrowing day in August 2017, when they were field mapping the Slinkard/Little Antelope Wildlife Area in Mono County, and a lightning strike touched off a fire. The VegCAMP team reported the fire immediately and were soon joined by CalFIRE helicopters and ground crews. Map-making took a back seat that day to field safety and group communication.

Despite the size and length of the fire (nearly 9,000 acres and several days), it didn’t really impact the work of VegCAMP. Nerves may have been rattled, but fortunately nearly all of that mapping area (work still in draft form) was untouched by flames.

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Media Contact:
Tim Daly, CDFW Communications, (916) 201-2958

(CDFW Photos)

Categories: Science Spotlight
  • August 19, 2020

bear in a tree with a tracking collar with the sun rays shining through the trees
A collared bear near Blue Canyon in Placer County.

For years, California Department of Fish and Wildlife scientists were trying to locate dens for California’s Sierra Nevada red fox — a rare and threatened species whose population has decreased substantially. Scientists had a general idea that some of the foxes denned at high elevations in the Lassen Peak area, but aside from vague descriptions written in the 1920s, the den locations had never been documented.

In 2018, a team of scientists led by CDFW wildlife biologist Jennifer Carlson put GPS satellite collars on several Sierra Nevada Red Foxes. They were able to locate several dens in 2018 and 2019 and are in the process of verifying at least two more. Through collar technology and field work they have also verified that the population they were tracking has successfully raised litters.

“Knowing basic information about where the foxes live and breed will help us develop conservation actions to benefit the species,” said Pete Figura, a CDFW wildlife management supervisor who has experience collaring many types of wildlife including deer, elk, Pacific fishers and band-tailed pigeons.

The conservation benefits of collar technology have been well documented. Perhaps slightly less well known is that collars are designed and deployed with animal welfare in mind, allowing study animals to reproduce, get the food they need, maintain a healthy weight and live full lives.

Scientists strive to use collars that weigh five percent or less of an animal’s body weight, and in some cases can use collars that weigh as little as one-and-a-half percent of an animal’s body weight. When possible, scientists use collars that feature a drop-off mechanism which releases the collar before its battery life runs out. The drop-off mechanism also ensures that the animal does not have to live the remainder of its life with an inactive collar. Drop-off collar technology isn’t yet available on some of the smallest collars but may be in the future. Biologists also use expandable collars for young animals that haven’t reached full size, allowing them to grow without being impeded by the collar.

CDFW uses collars that provide two types of telemetry data. The data is derived from three basic approaches:

  1. Collars that send out a VHF radio signal which researchers can detect or listen to with an antenna to determine an animal’s general location and whether it is alive or dead. Researchers must be relatively close to detect the VHF signal.
  2. Collars that passively receive a radio signal from satellites and collect GPS location and other data such as movement and temperature. The data are usually stored onboard the unit which needs to be retrieved and downloaded onto a computer. Some of these collars also allow researchers to download data remotely using a hand-held device, but researchers must be relatively close to the animal. These collars also incorporate the VHF radio signal technology described above.
  3. Collars that also communicate actively to satellites allowing researchers to access location data on their computers and communicate with the collars to change settings remotely (e.g., to change the data collection schedule during migration).

While CDFW collars many types of animals, ungulates (hooved mammals) are the largest group. At any given time, CDFW is collecting data from 500 or more collared ungulates across the state including deer, elk, pronghorn and bighorn sheep. The department collects data on collared ungulates for conservation purposes and to inform hunting limits. Scientists track movement, habitat use and survival and can collect data on everything from ambient temperature to the direction and speed the animal is traveling. Collars can also tell scientists when and where an animal has died and whether it is moving, feeding, or resting.

“We take very seriously our ethical obligation not to harm animals or unnecessarily cause them discomfort. We take great strides to ensure collars have the right fit and weight for the animal wearing them,” said David Casady, a CDFW wildlife biologist with extensive collaring experience.

Collars are typically made from foam and leather with a circuit board housed in strong metal or plastic casing. For data purposes, collars are designed so that the animal doesn’t behave differently than the rest of the population.

“The data we collect from a collared animal needs to be representative of the population at large or it’s not very applicable to our management and conservation efforts,” said Casady.

Data from collars allow CDFW to make well-informed, science-based management decisions. Although scientists in the field often have a solid understanding of the wildlife they research, thoroughly vetted data is what counts in the eyes of decision makers.

Wildlife Biologist Justin Dellinger researches mountain lions (and wolves) for CDFW. He’s seen valuable data come from the 70 to 80 collared lions currently being monitored throughout the state.

“With collared males that move around and look for new territory, data can show us where there’s a lack of habitat connectivity. We can use those data in developing movement corridors and road crossings. It can ultimately help our state’s lion population live full lives,” he said.

Dellinger can also attest to the fact that collared lions are able to reproduce. “A 10-year-old female collared lion that we’re monitoring recently had her fifth litter of kittens,” he said.

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CDFW Photos. Top Photo: A collared deer at Bonita Meadows in Tulare County in 2017. The deer was collared as part of a long-term monitoring project.

Media Contact:
Ken Paglia, CDFW Communications, (916) 825-7120

Categories: Science Spotlight